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【PTE写作】想摆脱写作65分?赶快来学习Summarize Written Text 79分进阶技巧+真题解析
2017/04/14
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【PTE听力】听力多选题例题详解,这题不难,难的是精准的解题思路
2017/04/14
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【PTE词汇】体育竞技类相关词汇, 搞定ASQ必备!

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今天我们来学习一些常见的运动相关单词。很多同学都认为这部分单词很简单,但其实大家都有不少盲点,特别是平时不关注体育的同学。有同学在PTE考试中听到一个ASQ的问题,问What do we call the person who supervise the players during a football game?(类似问题,欢迎遇到过这道题的同学们提供更准确的回忆)很多同学心里都知道“那是裁判员呀”,可是愣是不知道裁判用英语怎么说,甚至还有同学回答Judge…这些单词不仅在日常生活中很实用,也属于PTE考试的词汇范畴。赶紧来学习一下吧!

contestant n. 竞争者

a person who participates in competitions

e.g. But he passed only four contestants down the lane of the 1 1/4-mile course for his poorest placement in seven starts.

nationality n. 国籍,国家,民族

the status of belonging to a particular country

e.g. Married to an Albanian woman, he acquired Albanian nationality last year.

participant n. 参与者

a person who takes part in or is skilled at some game

e.g. He went to the club to for a meet and greet with some of the 336participants at the outing.

preliminary adj. 初步的 n. 准备,预赛

a minor match preceding the main event

e.g. The 18-time Olympic champion advanced to the semifinals of the 200-meter butterfly at the U.S. swimming trials Tuesday with the fastest time in the preliminaries.

spectator n. 观众,旁观者

a close observer; someone who looks at something

e.g. Despite bad weather, 263,500 spectators attended the race weekend.

 

sponsor n. 赞助商,主办者

someone who supports or champions something

e.g. Now, she’s a professional athlete, albeit still oozing charisma, andsponsors are betting big bucks on her to succeed again.

sportsmanship n. 体育道德,运动员精神

fairness and courtesy in following the rules of a game

e.g. The players are indulging in a handshake of sportsmanship, which will, of course, ensure impeccable behaviours.

stamina n. 毅力,精力,活力

enduring strength and energy

e.g. Rugby is far more satisfying and fun, and it takes a lot more stamina.

endurance n. 耐力

the power to withstand hardship or stress

e.g. In recent history, when the Finals end with a for-it-all final showdown, the games are more battles of endurance than thrilling, free-flowing basketball.

standing n. 名次

an ordered listing of scores or results showing the relative positions of competitors (individuals or teams) in a sporting event

e.g. Here’s the latest standings on who’s in and who’s out.

substitute n. 替补

an athlete who plays when a starter on the team is replaced

e.g. He was then dropped against Albania, coming on as a substitute in the second half.

venue n. 地点

the scene of any event or action

e.g. The performance transformed the sold-out venue into a deafening celebration.

victory n. 胜利

a successful ending of a struggle or contest

e.g. The 18-time Olympic champion can punch his ticket to Rio on Wednesday with a victory in the 200 fly final.

decathlon n. 十项全能

an athletic contest consisting of ten different events

e.g. Events for the decathlon are part of the first two days, while the heptathlon events are set for Friday and Saturday.

hurdle n. 障碍,栏

a light movable barrier that competitors must leap over in certain races

e.g. Instead, she ran the 60-meter hurdles and won, at which point someone leaked her test results to the press.

 

 

archery n. 箭术,射箭

the sport of shooting arrows with a bow

e.g. There will be lake fishing, kayaking, archery and shooting sports, guided by expert instructors.

opponent n. 敌手,对手

a contestant that you are matched against

e.g. Put another way, how could such groups find so many people willing to die for their causes, while their opponents found so few?

vault n. 撑杆跳

the act of jumping over an obstacle

e.g. Then she felt a twinge in her knee while landing a vault during practice in early April.

 

equestrian adj. 骑术的

of or relating to or featuring horseback riding

e.g. When horseback riding was the dominant mode of transportation, equestrian shops were as common as fresh-pressed juice bars are today.

 

synchronized adj. 同步的

operating in unison

e.g. And he delivered, doing some synchronized moves with several pros that really did make an impression.

 

repechage n. 补充赛

a race (especially in rowing) in which runners-up in the eliminating heats compete for a place in the final race

e.g. True, the loser will have another chance to qualify, in a repechage event next year.

 

competitor n. 竞争者,对手

the contestant you hope to defeat

e.g. In the “weight over the bar” event, competitors can use only one hand to toss a 56-pound weight over a horizontal bar.

referee n. 裁判员

the official in a sport who is expected to ensure fair play

e.g. “I thought he touched it with his hand. It was a difficult decision for thereferee.”

disqualification n. 取消资格,被罚下场

unfitness that bars one from participation in an activity

e.g. Failure to comply with these Official Rules may result in disqualificationfrom the Contest.

 

pommel n. 鞍马

a handgrip that a gymnast uses when performing exercises

e.g. Jesse won gold in parallel bars, rings, vaulting table and pommel horse, silver in the high bar and bronze in floor exercise.

 

riposte n. 反击

a counterattack made immediately after successfully parrying

e.g. It was the perfect riposte to anyone doubting his technique against the short ball and set the tone for a magnificent attacking century.

somersault n. 空翻,筋斗

an acrobatic feat in which the feet roll over the head (either forward or backward) and return

e.g. She tucked into a roll, turned the impact into a somersault, and came up standing.

(Source: Vocabulary.com)

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【PTE阅读】今日小练习,阅读Reorder Paragraphs难题解析
2017/04/14
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【PTE词汇】体育竞技类相关词汇, 搞定ASQ必备!
2017/04/14
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【PTE写作】想摆脱写作65分?赶快来学习Summarize Written Text 79分进阶技巧+真题解析

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这篇帖子送给很多已经考过65分,目标冲刺79分的同学。对于SWT题型,65分和79分的区别到底在哪里?79分的答案到底是怎样的?今天我们就来看一看。

首先我们来复习一下SWT的解题技巧(看过的同学可以跳过这个部分,直接拉到下面的“65分三种解题思路”部分哦):

记住一个简单的口诀:先找转折,再剪修饰,

最后剥栗子。

 

 先找转折 But, there is a big but.But是一个转折词,同样表示转折的词语还有:However, though, while, still, whereas, nevertheless, yet, on the other hand等等。转折词可以帮我们省半句话。如果大家看过非诚勿扰之类的节目,一定会记得女生无情拒绝的台词:“我觉得你人不错,性格也很好,工作稳定,但是……”然后,就没有然后了。其实在英语的阅读中,”But”也有完全相同的功能。

比如这样一句话:

By far the most popular and most consumed drink in the world is water, but it may come as no surprise that the second most popular beverage is tea.

同学们有没有看到这个大大的But?看到它的时候,果断记住,前面一半的句子,都不重要。这就意味着在考试的时候,你可以完全无视前半句话,因为它根本不是考点所在。

觉得不过瘾?我们再来一句:

Although tea was originally grown only in certain parts of Asia – in countries such as China, Burma and India – it is now a key export product in more than 50 countries around the globe.

这里有一个小小的插入语,先放一边,Although是虽然的意思,所以这句话的前半句,直到插入语结束,都不重要。都不重要。都不重要。重要的事情说三遍。

这样一来,实际考试需要阅读的部分就大大地缩短了。

 

☑ 再剪修饰 Clauses are often worthless.语法相对扎实的同学会知道,英语的语句,尤其是书面语中,会有大量的从句。从句很多时候起到的是修饰作用,其本身会对信息的某一个要点进行细节的补充。因此,在PTE的考试中,基本可以奉行一个原则:从句的修饰部分,都可以无视。比如这句话:Countries that grow tea, however, need to have the right tropical climate, which includes up to 200 centimetres of rainfall per year to encourage fast growth, and temperatures that range from ten to 35 degrees centigrade.

整句话的后半部分,是由which引导的修饰性从句,对整体的意思不会有任何影响,可以无视。我们再来一句:

By far the most popular and most consumed drink in the world is water, but it may come as no surprise that the second most popular beverage is tea.

这句话中,that起到的是替代宾语的作用,因此前面的套句部分可以完全无视。

 

☑ 最后剥栗子 There is no such thing as such…Such as在英语里是一个举例用的连接词,相似的还有for example, for instance等等。举例的实际意义在于用实据来说明证明观点。不过在PTE考试时,请抱着“栗子是什么?好吃吗?”的态度来面对Summarize written text,所有出现的栗子,哦不,是例子,都不重要。好了,闲话少说,我们来剥栗子:They also need to have quite specific geographical features, such as high altitudes to promote the flavour and taste of the tea, and land that can offer plenty of shade in the form of other trees and vegetation to keep the plants cool and fresh.

虽然很长,但是两只栗子,很轻松地被我们剥了出去。我们来继续做采栗子的小姑娘:

There is green tea, jasmine tea, earl grey tea, peppermint tea, tea to help you sleep, tea to promote healing and tea to relieve stress; but above all, tea is a social drink that seems to suit the palates and consumption habits of human beings in general.

好了,前面这一堆关于茶的栗子,都可以被迅速地清理出去

那么通过以上的技巧,我们就可以比较容易的整理出需要在Summary中写的要点内容了。但是我们经常听到考生的一个疑问是:我整理出了很多关键点,怎么样把它们放到一句话中?

65分的三种解题思路
 使用 , and, because/ , but 之类的连接词联系两句话。 使用 直接联系两句话。以上这两种写作的方式都有一定的危险性,毕竟如果被抽查到的话,考官很难对这样的句型给出满分的评价。

 使用从句来链接:这个方式本身没有问题,只是在内容比较多的时候,容易产生语法错误,尤其是当使用which/that指代的时候,单复数的问题,以及使用if/when的时候,过去现在时态的问题。

另外,这几种写法一般会导致字数较多,尤其在文中要点比较多的时候,容易造成字数上的压力。这里,我们给大家分享一个更为简洁有效的方法:使用介词

介词连接法

例子1:如果我们有这样一句话,括号里的部分是我们希望补充的内容: Starting a company takes hard work. ( + Most people have little money for this.) 79分精炼写法:Starting a company with little money takes hard work.

这里我们并不需要再用一句新的句子来承载含义,只需要简短地一句话,with little money,说明意思就可以了。

 

例子2

Setting up a business requires not only good ideas but also determination and skill. ( + The business is starting from nothing. The skill is about influencing people.)

 79分精炼写法:Setting up a business from nothing requires not only good ideas but also determination and skill to influence people.

追求替换词句的同学,也可以使用from zero来代替原文中的from nothing。

例子3

Despite the risk, he had encouragement. (The risk was in his decision to set up a new business. His wife encouraged him.)

 79分精炼写法:Despite the risk in his decision to set up a new business, he had encourage from his wife.

可以说介词是英语的灵魂,通过它我们可以任何地补充信息。在这里,我们只要确保介词后面跟的基本是名词形态,那么从PTE的语法上来说就不会有太大的问题。

例子4

最后一个例题,大家可以自己想一想,练练手,别急着看答案~

People who set up companies take big risks, but they often gain significant rewards. ( + People invest their own money in these companies. The rewards are a result of their effort.)

 79分精炼写法1:People who set up companies with investment take big risks, but they often gain significant rewards for their effort.

 79分精炼写法2:Investors who set up companies take big risks, but they often gain significant rewards for their effort.

真题解析

“Australian Indigenous Food”In its periodic quest for culinary identity, Australia automatically looks to its indigenous ingredients, the foods that are native to this country. ‘There can be little doubt that using an indigenous product must qualify a dish as Australian’, notes Stephanie Alexander. Similarly, and without qualification, Cherikoff states that ‘A uniquely Australian food culture can only be based upon foods indigenous to this country’, although, as Craw remarks, proposing Australian native foods as national symbols relies more upon their association with ‘nature’ and geographic origin than on common usage. Notwithstanding the lack of justification for the premise that national dishes are, of necessity, founded on ingredients native to the country—after all, Italy’s gastronomic identity is tied to the non-indigenous tomato, Thailand’s to the non-indigenous chili—the reality is that Australians do not eat indigenous foods in significant quantities. The exceptions are fish, crustaceans and shellfish from oceans, rivers and lakes, most of which are unarguably unique to this country. Despite valiant and well-intentioned efforts today at promoting and encouraging the consumption of native resources, bush foods are not harvested or produced in sufficient quantities for them to be a standard component of Australian diets, nor are they generally accessible. Indigenous foods are less relevant to Australian identity today than lamb and passionfruit, both initially imported and now naturalised.从题目当中,我们不难整理出,最重要的句子有以下三点:

 Australian native foods as national symbols relies more upon their association with ‘nature’ and geographic origin than on common usage.

 Australians do not eat indigenous foods in significant quantities.

 Bush foods are not harvested or produced in sufficient quantities for them to be a standard component of Australian diets, nor are they generally accessible.

那么我们只需要选择其中一句话作为主句,然后用介词和连接词的方式把其他的内容尽可能加入,就可以组成一句话。

 

参考答案

Australian native foods, without sufficient accessibility and quantities of harvest and production for the consumption of Australians, rely more upon their association with nature and geographic origin than on common usage as national symbols to be a standard component of Australian diets.